Beneath the Underground: The Flight to Freedom. Icons used in advertisements for runaway slaves by the Planter's Advocate (P.G. Co., ca. 1850s)
Resources: Free African American Population Tables Search:
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  • Table 1: Free Blacks in the United States, 1830 - 1860
    1830 1840 1850 1860
    MD 52,938 62,078 74,723 83,942
    VA 47,348 49,852 54,333 58,042
    NY 44,870 50,027 49,069 49,005
    PA 37,930 47,854 53,626 56,949
    NC 19,543 22,732 27,463 30,463
    NJ 18,303 21,044 23,810 25,318
    LA 16,710 25,502 17,462 18,647
    DE 15,855 16,919 18,073 19,829
    OH 9,568 17,342 25,279 36,673
    Table 2: Percentage of Free Blacks in Population , 1830 - 1860
    1830 1840 1850 1860
    DE* 21 22 20 18
    MD 12 13 13 12
    NJ 6 6 5 4
    VA 4 4 4 4
    LA 8 7 3 3
    NC 3 3 3 3
    PA 3 3 2 2
    NY 2 2 1 1
    OH 1 1 1 1
    *Delaware's high percentage of free blacks among its population is offset by it's small size.  Statewide, Delaware only had 21,627 black residents compared to Maryland's 171,131.  In fact , Baltimore City alone was home to some 27,898 African Americans
    Source: United States Historical Census Data Browser



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