Judge Lynch's Court


Judge Lynch's Court Statistical Tables

The Maryland State Archives offers this historical look at the lynching phenomena as it occurred in the state during the late nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. It is not the purpose of this site to interpret these phenomena, but only to provide information, data, and context for lay readers and researchers who may themselves affix interpretation.

For each lynching under the consideration of this study, a profile questionnaire was completed. The goal of this questionnaire was to apply categorization to the various elements of each episode -- from the trigger crime through the post-lynching climate -- so that generalizations may be drawn from the incidents collectively. The results of the categorization are submited in tables below. The individual profile questionnaire for each lynching victim is linked directly to the victim's biographical profile.


Table 1 - Maryland Lynchings, 1854 - 1933
Name of Person Lynched Date of Lynching Color of Person Lynched Color of Trigger Crime Victim Gender of Trigger Crime Victim Color of Lynch Mob Crime for which Lynching Executed County in Which Lynching Occurred
William "Cuba" Andrews 6/9/1895 black white female white Sexual Violence Somerset
George Armwood black white
James Bowens 11/16/1895  black white female white Sexual Violence Frederick
George Briscoe 11/26/1884 black white female white Robbery Anne Arundel
William Burns 10/6/1907 black white male white Unsolicated Fatal violence Allegany
Townshend Cook 6/2/1885 black white female white Sexual Violence Carroll
Howard Cooper 7/13/1885 black white female white Sexual Violence Baltimore
Henry Davis black white
Asbury  5/13/1891 black white female white Sexual Violence Queen Anne's
Michael Green black white
Benjamin Hance 6/17/1887 black white female white Sexual Violence St. Mary's
Jacob Henson 5/28/1895 black white male white Unsolicated Fatal violence Howard
King Johnson 12/25/1911 black white male white Fatal Violence in Self-Defense Anne Arundel
Isaac Kemp 6/8/1894 black white male white Violent Altrication resulting in Fatality Princess Anne
Garfield King 5/25/1898 black white male white Unsolicated Fatal violence Wicomico
Marshall E. Price 6/28/1895 white white female white Unsolicated Fatal violence Caroline
James Reed 7/28/1907 black white male white Unsolicated Fatal violence Somerset
Wright Smith 10/5/1898 black white female white Unsolicated Non-fatal violence Anne Arundel
John Scott 3/23/1875 black white female interracial Sexual Violence Prince George's
Nicholas Snowden 9/18/1885 black black female black Sexual Violence Howard
James Taylor 5/17/1892 black white female white Sexual Violence Kent
Joe Vermillion 12/11/1889 black n/a n/a white Arson Prince George's
Charles Whitley 6/6/1886 black white female white Sexual Violence Calvert
Matt Williams 12/4/1931 black white male white Unsolicated Fatal violence Wicomico
Stephen Williams 10/20/1894 black white female white Sexual Violence Prince George's

Table 2 - Crimes For Which Person Was Lynched, and Occurrences in Maryland
Type of Crime No. of Occurrences Resulting in a Lynch Action
Unsolicited fatal violence 6
Violence in fatal self-defense 1
Unsolicited non-fatal violence 1
Violence in non-fatal self-defense 0
Sexual violence 11
Robbery 1
Arson 1
Participatory insurrection 0
Guilt-by-association (in the case of insurrection) 0
Table 3 - Lynching Occurrences in Maryland Compared to National Incidences, by Decade
Year Span Maryland Incidences National Incidences
1860s 0
1870s 1
1880s 7
1890s 10
1900s 2
1910s 1
1920s 0
1930s 1


Table 4 - Lynching Occurrences in Maryland Counties, 1865 – 1933
Region: County 1865 - 1899 1900 - 1933
WESTERN MARYLAND: 0 1
Garrett County 0 0
Allegany County 0 1
Washington County 0 0
CENTRAL MARYLAND: 5 0
Frederick County 1 0
Carroll County 1 0
Harford County 0 0
Baltimore County 1 0
Baltimore City 0 0
Howard County 2 0
Montgomery County 0 0
SOUTHERN MARYLAND:  7 1
Anne Arundel County 2 1
Prince George’s County 3 0
Calvert County 1 0
Charles County 0 0
St. Mary’s County 1 0
UPPER EASTERN SHORE MARYLAND:  2 0
Cecil County 0 0
Kent County 1 0
Queen Anne County 1 0
Talbot County 0 0
Caroline County 0 0
LOWER EASTERN SHORE MARYLAND:  3 2
Dorchester County 0 0
Wicomico County 1 1
Somerset County 2 1
Worcester County 0 0
Table 5 a - Profile of Victims in Lynching Trigger Crimes, 1865 - 1933
Demographics No. of Occurrences*
Local 19
Outsider 1
Male 7
Female 13
Black 1
White 19
Child or teenager 6
Officer of Law or Gov't 3

* Because multiple characteristics per victim, number of characteristics will exceed number of victims

Table 5 b - Profile of Persons Lynched in Maryland, 1865 - 1933
Demographics No. of Occurrences*
Local 16
Outsider 6
Male 22
Female 0
Black 21
White 1
Child or teenager 1

* Because multiple characteristics per incidence, number of characteristics will exceed number of persons lynched



Table 6 - Profile of Lynching Behavior
Point at Which Lynching Usurped Due Process of the Law: No. of Lynchings 
Shortly after the crime, but before any conclusive investigation 13
While trial was on-going, after the verdict, but before Sentencing 2
After the trial had concluded, verdict handed down, sentencing handed down
Persons Lynched after being sentenced to death by the court
Persons Lynched but not sentenced to death by the court
6


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